Phylogenetics of Cynipoidea
Introduction

Cynipoidea consists of nearly 3,000 described species in 224 genera. The superfamily is currently divided into five putatively monophyletic families: the Austrocynipidae, Ibaliidae, Liopteridae, Figitidae and Cynipidae. The Cynipidae comprise the phytophagous gall wasps; most of these are gall inducers but some of them develop as inquilines feeding on the plant tissue inside the galls of other cynipid species. The members of the other families are, as far as is currently known, all insect-parasitic. They develop initially as koinobiont endoparasitoids but spend the last one or two instars feeding externally on the host remains. They exclusively attack endopterygote insect larvae, usually as primary parasitoids.  The most important differences between this classification and previous classifications concern the Figitidae, which are often divided into a number of separate families by other authors. The most commonly recognized families are the Anacharitidae, Charipidae, and Eucoilidae. The major problem with these alternative classifications is that they minimally leave one heterogeneous group of unrelated lineages in the more narrowly circumscribed Figitidae (sensu stricto).

Exemplar Taxa

AUSTROCYNIPIDAE

  • Austrocynips

IBALIIDAE

  • Ibalia
  • Eileenella
  • Heteribalia

LIOPTERIDAE

Mayrellinae

  • Paramblynotus virginianus
  • Kiefferiella

Dallatorrellinae

  • Dallatorrella

Liopterinae

  • Pseudibalia
  • Liopteron

Oberthuerellinae

FIGITIDAE

Parnipinae

  • Parnips nigripes

Thrasorinae

  • Euceroptres
  • Myrtopsen
  • Pegascynips
  • Paraulax
  • Thrasorus

Charipinae

  • Alloxysta
  • Phaenoglyphis
  • Hemicrisis
  • Apocharips
  • Dilyta

Anacharitinae

  • Anacharis
  • Xyalaspis
  • Aegilips
  • Acanthaegilips

Pycnostigminae

  • Pycnostigmus
  • Tylosema
  • Trjapitziniola

Aspicerinae

  • Aspicera
  • Proaspicera
  • Paraspicera
  • Callaspidia
  • Omalaspis
  • Anacharoides
  • Balna

Figitinae

  • Melanips
  • Lonchidia
  • Neralsia
  • Xyalophora
  • Amphitectus
  • Figites
  • Zygosis

Emargininae

  • Thoreauella

Eucoilinae

  • Gronotoma
  • Disorygma
  • Zaeucoila
  • Dettmeria
  • Aegeseucoila
  • Ganaspis
  • Chrestosema
  • Trybliographa
  • Eucoila
  • Leptopilina
  • Rhoptromeris
  • Trichoplasta
  • Cothonaspis
  • Kleidotoma
  • Striatovertex
  • Hexacola

CYNIPIDAE

  • Diplolepis
  • Himalocynips
  • Rhoophilus
  • Paraulax
  • lots of others to be decided

This project is funded by the National Science Foundation as part of Assembling the Tree of Life Project EF-0337220, Building the Hymenopteran Tree of Life (a.k.a. HymAToL).Website questions/problems/corrections: webmeistro@apocrita.info