Phylogenetics of Proctotrupoidea

Introduction

Proctotrupoidea currently comprises a loose assemblage of families that may or may not be related, and the superfamily is therefore difficult to define morphologically as a cohesive unit. The wasps in these families generally share the following characteristics:

  • not metallic (usually black/brown to yellow in color)
  • strongly sclerotized
  • antennae with consistent flagellomere numbers
  • no placoid sensilla present
  • metasomal segment II is the longest segment
  • ovipositor is housed internally or, if external, protected by heavily sclerotized sheaths

These families also vary widely in their host preference and developmental strategies, and most are parasitoids of other insects:

  • beetle larvae (Pelecinidae, Vanhorniidae, and most Proctotrupidae)
  • flies (Diapriidae, Monomachidae, some Proctotrupidae)
  • sawfly larvae (Roproniidae)
  • lacewing larvae (Heloridae)
Aims and Methods

One thrust of the PCC phylogenetics project is to determine whether these families make sense phylogenetically and how this phylogeny explains what we know about their host relationships, their evolutionary histories, and the biogeographic patterns we observe today in these wasps. These lineages have never been examined using modern phylogenetic methods, and what we know about their relationships to one another is based on hypothetical or intuitive tree diagrams (see figure above; based on Kozlov, 1970 and Townes & Townes, 1981).

We are trying to acquire specimens (exemplar taxa listed below) for rigorous morphological- and DNA-based analyses.

Exemplar Taxa

PROCTOTRUPIDAE

Proctotrupinae

  • Apoglypha
  • Brachyserphus
  • Codrus
  • Disogmus
  • Exallonyx
  • Phaenoserphes
  • Proctotrupes

Heloriserphinae

  • Heloriserphus

Austroserphinae

  • Austroserphus albofasciatus
  • Austrocodrus

VANHORNIIDAE

  • Vanhornia eucnemidarum

AUSTRONIIDAE

  • Austronia nitida

MONOMACHIDAE

  • Monomachus antipodalis
  • Other Monomachus

ROPRONIIDAE

  • Ropronia garmani
  • Xiphyropronia tianmushiensis

HELORIDAE

  • Helorus

PERADENIIDAE

  • Peradenia clavipes

PROCTORENYXIDAE

  • Proctorenyxa

PELECINIDAE

  • Pelecinus polyturator

MAAMINGIDAE

  • Maaminga

DIAPRIIDAE

Ismarinae

  • Ismarus

Belytinae

  • Belyta
  • Aclista
  • Stylaclista

Diapriinae

  • Chilomicrus
  • Coptera
  • Spilomicrus
  • Poecilopsilus
  • Pentapria
  • Idiotypa
  • Entomacis
  • Neurogalesus

Ambositrinae

  • Ambositra
  • Diphoropria
  • Pantolytomyia

References

Kozlov, M. A. 1970. Supergeneric groups of the Proctotrupoidea (Hymenoptera). Entomological Review (Entomologicheskoe Obozrenie) 49 (1): 115-127. [English translation of original Russian text]

Townes, H. K. & M. Townes. 1981. A revision of the Serphidae (Hymenoptera). Memoirs of the American Entomological Institute 32: i-iv+1-541.

This project is funded by the National Science Foundation as part of Assembling the Tree of Life Project EF-0337220, Building the Hymenopteran Tree of Life (a.k.a. HymAToL).Website questions/problems/corrections: webmeistro@apocrita.info